Where does the Parable of the Sower begin? (Mark 4:3)

By Peter J. Williams, Associate Editor

The Greek New Testament, Produced at Tyndale House, Cambridge published this month by Crossway and Cambridge University Press is the first printed edition of the Greek New Testament to take all its paragraph marks from early manuscripts.

Most ancient manuscripts of the New Testament contained some sort of paragraph marks. Two common methods of paragraphing were putting the first letter of a line out into the margin (called ekthesis) and putting a small horizontal line (called a paragraphos) above the first word of a new section. In addition spaces of various sizes could be left at the end of a section.

In our edition we decided only to accept paragraph divisions based on early manuscripts.

This led us to a surprising conclusion in Mark 4:3 where Jesus begins the Parable of the Sower: we decided we had to put the paragraph mark after the first word of Jesus’s speech.

The text runs literally like this:

4:2 ‘and he [Jesus] was teaching them many things in parables and was saying to them in his teaching, 4:3 “Listen. Look. The sower went out to sow.”’

The Greek word “Listen” is akouete (related to the word acoustic).

The Greek word for “Look” is idou (distantly related to the word video).

In our edition we put the paragraph mark after “Listen,” following the earliest Greek manuscripts of this passage. Codex Sinaiticus (pictured right, see right hand column lines 5 and 6) from the Fourth Century and Codex Alexandrinus and Codex Bezae from the Fifth Century all have clear paragraph marks here. So probably does Codex Vaticanus, from the Fourth Century, which has a paragraphos added by a later hand. The remaining manuscript Codex Ephraemi Rescriptus from the Fifth Century has a line break here, but no clear sign of paragraph division.

What’s so surprising is that these manuscripts don’t otherwise appear to be particularly closely related in other textual features. Codex Bezae (with ekthesis at line 4, pictured right) is quite different otherwise from Codex Sinaiticus. This raises the question of whether the paragraph mark is in fact a shared inheritance from when the Gospel of Mark was first written or circulated.

This paragraph division makes for a much more engaging opening. No longer do Jesus’s instructions to listen and look run together in a blend of the aural and visual. Rather the text provides us first with Jesus’s address to his hearers:

“Listen up”

Now they’re listening, he begins his story:

“Look. Use the eye of your imagination and see the sower is going out and sowing.”

For more details and pictures of the manuscripts, see here.

From 15 November, the new edition of the Greek New Testament is available from Crossway as well as Amazon.


Why give Abraham a rough breathing?

The question of whether to give Abraham a rough or smooth breathing is difficult. Manuscripts differ. We could say that it begins with aleph and that aleph = smooth breathing. The problem with this is that it’s sheer prejudice. We don’t have data which show a regular alignment between aleph and smooth breathing. OK, you say, but rough breathing = aspiration, and we know from lots of languages, the original Hebrew, and the NT versions of Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, Latin, Syriac, etc., that it wasn’t represented by aspiration in those scripts. Fair point, but it still doesn’t settle the question of how it was (a) pronounced in Greek; (b) written by educated scribes.

Look at Liddell and Scott and you’ll see that, if you exclude alpha privatives, ἁβρ- (perhaps with the rough breathing representing Proto-Indoeuropean s) is a more common Greek word beginning than ἀβρ-, so why should Greek not use the rough breathing here and make Abraham sound a little more native?

Now look at some manuscripts for Matthew 1:1 and note the first 12 sources I come across.

B 35 689 690 774 1418 2278 2414 read rough

478 481 1424 read smooth

688 has one of each!

Look at Gal 3:29 and check some different sources as well as some of the same:

B 35 69 104 319 757 2298 read rough

D (06) 1424 read smooth

So it seems that the rough breathing is preponderant. How do we decide which to print? That’s tough, but we know that the accentor of B was really smart and I value him more than the accentor of D (Claromontanus). So with a bit of hesitation, we choose the rough breathing as representing the stronger learned tradition for Greek breathings. Now we’re not thereby saying that anyone ever pronounced this with aspiration. Maybe they did, maybe they didn’t. Nor are we saying that this was pronounced with aspiration at the time of the NT. We’re just saying this: if you’re going to bother having breathings at all, they need to be there to give readers historical information which comes from manuscripts rather than from the heads of editors. Any reader who’s studied Hebrew knows that Abraham’s name in Hebrew begins with an aleph. They don’t need an NT editor to tell them that. What may be of more interest is for them to know that the strongest learned tradition of breathing in Greek is for Abraham to have a rough breathing.

What we’re printing here is not odd or a novelty. It was also what Erasmus printed and other early editions of the TR (which of course were closely based on the manuscripts available at the time). It’s also what you’ll sometimes find, for instance, in Niese’s edition of Josephus that Abraham is Ἅβραμος, given not only the nice Greek ending, but the nice Greek beginning of a rough breathing, in line with the mss.

So in making an edition where we try to model everything we can off the manuscripts we decided on balance to use a rough breathing for this name. It’s not necessarily a big deal, except that users may like to know that thought, care, and above all, documentary evidence has gone into decisions like these.