Using Tyndale Greek & Hebrew               (Installation help here)

Unicode font keyboard layouts

 

The Tyndale Unicode Font Kit provides:

  • Hebrew font and keyboard including full pointing with automatic positioning
  • Greek font and keyboard including breathing and accents with automatic positioning
  • Transliteration font and keyboards for Greek, Hebrew and manuscript markups
  • Masoretic punctuation font and keyboard for punctuation in the Hebrew Old Testament

 

To start typing in Greek or Hebrew:

1)   Turn on the keyboard at "EN" on the taskbar or toggle through keyboards with Alt-Shift

 

2)   Change the font to Cardo

                

(On a Mac, click on the flag at top right)

 

 

Most word processors on a PC will work OK with Greek & right-to-left Hebrew.

A few word processors (eg Word Perfect) may never convert to Unicode.

On the Mac, Word does not cope with writing Hebrew right-to-left or pointing,

but NeoOffice (free) writes Hebrew well and Melel (cheap) does it perfectly.

However, at present, there are considerable problems with Hebrew on Macs. 

 

 

Keyboards:

 

This summary keyboard layout is useful to remind you where everything is.

But before you go there, follow the rest of these instructions so you know

which will show you how to touch-type in Hebrew & Greek will all Biblical accents etc.

 

 

 


Greek:

 

Turn on the  Greek keyboard by setting the Language bar to EL

For a high-quality font, switch to Cardo, especially for accents & breathing.

 

Most of the alphabet is mapped to phonetic equivalents (ie similar sounding letters), and others are mostly mapped to similar looking letters.

 

 

 

Most letters are on phonetic equivalents, with upper case on Shift eg:

 

 to get

α

type

a

 

to get

β

type

b

 

 

 to get

Γ

type

Shift G

 

to get

Δ

type

Shift D

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are a few non-phonetic letters are, ie:

 

to get

θ

type

q

 

to get

ω

type

w

 

to get

ψ

type

y

 

to get

η

type

h

 

to get

ς

type

v

 

to get

ῳ

type

w `

 

 

Breathing & Accents Summary:
Type accents and breathings BEFORE the letter.

If you just want an accent, press  \  or /  or  =

- to add dots over them, hold Shift

For all breathing, press AltGr

- if you want just a soft breathing, press AltGr + ‘

- if you want a soft breathing with an accent, press AltGr + \  or /  or  =

- if you want a harsh breathing with any of these, add Shift

 

In more detail: 

Accents are on the keys withand  /  and ~ . They are typed before the letter.  Only valid accents are available.

 

to get

type

\  a

 

to get

type

/  a

 

to get

type

=  a

 

to get

type

/  i

Diaresis (dots) is shift-hyphen then υ or ι, or with shift plus  normal accents, eg:  

 

to get

type

Sh+\ u

 

to get

type

Sh+/ u

 

to get

type

Sh+= u

 

to get

type

Sh+= i

 

to get

ϋ

type

Sh+- u

 

to get

ϊ

type

Sh+- i

 

 

Add breathings to accents by holding AltGr, and add Shift for harsh breathings.

(AltGk is the Alt on the right of the space bar. On a Mac, use the Alt Option key.)

 

Simple breathings are produced by holding AltGr with ' . Add Shift for harsh breathing,  eg:

 

 

to get

type

AltGr+' a

 

to get

type

Sh-AltGr+' a

 

 

to get

type

AltGr+' A

 

to get

type

Sh-AltGr+' A

 

 

to get

type

AltGr+" r

 

to get

type

Sh-AltGr+' R

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Breathing combined with accents are produced by holding AltGr with those accents, eg:

 

 

to get

type

AltGr+\ a

 

to get

type

AltGr+/ a

 

 

to get

type

AltGr+= a

 

to get

type

AltGr+= i

 

 

to get

type

Sh-AltGr+\ a

 

to get

type

Sh-AltGr+/ a

 

to get

type

Sh-AltGr+= a

 

to get

type

Sh-AltGr+= i

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Transliteration:

 

This is included in the Greek keyboard so set the Language bar to EL

To turn on the Transliteration font, turn on Caps Lock.

Switch to the font Cardo to ensure all the symbols are available.

 

The letters are now in normal Roman font while the numbers are symbols, ie:

 

Type transliteration symbols AFTER the letter. Press numbers to put symbols above letters, and Shift-number to put them above letters (on a Mac, use Option-number), eg:

 

to get

type

s 4

 

to get

type

s $

 

to get

type

s 7

 

to get

type

s &

 

to get

type

s 9

 

to get

type

s (

 

to get

type

s -

 

to get

type

s _

 

to get

type

s 2

 

to get

type

s @

 

to get

type

s 8

 

to get

type

s *

 

As a guide, the SBL system of transliteration is:

 

א

ב

ג

ד

ה

ו

ז

ח

ט

י

כ

ל

מ

נ

ס

ע

פ

צ

ק

ר

שׂ

שׁ

ת

1

)

b

g

d

h

w

z

y

k

l

m

n

s

(

p

q

r

ś

š

t

2

ʼ/

b/v

g/gh

d/dh

h

v/w

z

h/kh

t

y

k/kh

l

m

n

s

ʻ/

p/f

ts

q

r

s

sh

t/th

 

ַ

ָ

ָה

ָיו

ֶ

ֵ

ֶי

ֶיּ

ֵי

ֵיּ

ִ

ִי

ִיּ

ָ

ֹ

וֹ

ֻ

וּ

ֳ

ֲ

ֱ

ְ

 

1

a

ā

â

āyw

e

ē

ê

êy

ê

êy

i

î

îy

o

ō

ô

u

û

ŏ

ă

ĕ

ĕ

 

2

a

a

ah

ayw

e

e

e

ey

e

ey

i

i

iy

o

o

o

u

u

o

a

e

e

 

1 SBL Academic style

2 SBL General purpose style

α

β

γ

δ

ε

ζ

η

θ

ι

κ

λ

μ

ν

ξ

ο

π

ρ

σ/ς

τ

υ

φ

χ

ψ

ω

ʻ

a

b

g

d

e

z

ē

th

i

k

l

m

n

x

o

p

r

rh

s

t

y/u

ph

ch

ps

ō

h

 

 

 

Hebrew:

 

Turn on the  Hebrew keyboard by setting the Language bar to HE

For a high-quality font, switch to Cardo, especially for pointing & punctuation.

 

Most of the alphabet is mapped to phonetic equivalents (ie similar sounding letters), and others are mostly mapped to similar looking letters.

 

 

 

Most letters are on phonetic equivalents, with final forms on Shift eg:

 

to get

כ

type

k

 

to get

מ

type

m

 

 

to get

ך

type

Shift K

 

to get

ם

type

Shift M

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There are a few non-phonetic letters are, ie:

 

to get

א

type

x

 

to get

ע

type

y

 

to get

ט

type

f

 

to get

י

type

j

 

to get

ח

type

H

 

to get

ש

type

w `

 

to get

שׂ

type

Q

 

to get

שׁ

type

W

 

Vowels are on normal vowels, with strong vowels on Shift vowels, ie:

 

to get

ַ

type

a

 

to get

ָ

type

A

 

to get

ֶ

type

e

 

to get

ֵ

type

E

 

to get

ִ

type

i

 

to get

 ִי

type

I

 

to get

 ֹ

type

o

 

to get

 וֹ

type

O

 

to get

 ֻ

type

u

 

to get

וּ

type

U

 

Right-to-left is automatic, and vowels are AFTER the letter, just like in English, so to get מֶלֶך type meleK.

 

 

Shewa and dagesh can be added after letters by using " ; " and " = ".

Or add them to letters by holding  AltGr.

(AltGk is the Alt on the right of the space bar. On a Mac, use the Alt Option key.)

 

So AltGk with a vowel makes a composite shewa.

 

 to get

בּ

type

b =

or type AltGk+ b

 

 

 

 

 to get

ְ

type

;

 

to get

ֲ

type

AltGr+ a

 

 to get

ֱ

type

AltGr+ e

 

to get

ֳ

type

AltGr+A

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shewa, dagesh and other pointing are correctly positioned automatically, eg:            

 

to get

בְ

type

b ;

 

to get

ךְ

type

K ;

 

to get

בִ

type

b i

 

to get

דִ

type

d i

 

to get

פּ

type

p =

 

to get

יּ

type

j =

 

to get

יֹ

type

j o

 

to get

לֹ

type

l o

           

Simple punctuation is on the main keyboard, ie   

 

to get

בֽ

type

b `

 

to get

־

type

-

 

to get

׃

type

:

 

to get

ב֯

type

b ~

 

to get

׳

type

'

 

to get

״

type

"

 

 

 

Masoretic punctuation

 

The Masoretes tried to eliminate ambiguity in the Hebrew Old Testament by indicating which words form phrases together and which words did or did not act on each other. In order to do this they created a complex system of punctuation.

·         English has five or six ways to provide internal structure to sentences, while Masoretic Hebrew has fourteen common ways and several more rarer ones.

·         English has only one way to make a compound word (using a hyphen) while Masoretic Hebrew has eight major and several rarer ways of conjoining words.

An explanation of this system is installed with the Tyndale Kit.

To see the significance of these divisions see the TanakhML structure analysis,

eg at http://tanakhml2.alacartejava.net/cocoon/tanakhml/d21.php2xml?sfr=1&prq=1&psq=1&lvl=99

 

 

Masoretic punctuation is on the number line when Caps Lock is turned on, eg:

 

to get

בֽ

type

b 1

 

to get

ב֔

type

b !

 

to get

ב֩

type

b 2

 

to get

ב֯

type

b @

 

to get

ב֪

type

b -

 

to get

בֿ

type

b _

 

to get

ב֤

type

b 9

 

to get

ב֚

type

b 0

 

This punctuation is normally omitted when quoting the Hebrew OT.

 

 

 

Problems:

 

I can't remember all this!

Don't worry – use it for a little, and you'll soon be touch-typing.

Print the summary page and pin it up in front of you.

 

How do I copy and paste Bible texts without typing them?

You can do this in various ways, eg:

1) copy and paste from Crosswire.org
2) download the InsertBible tool
3) tell your Bible program (Accordance, Logos or BibleWorks) to export in Unicode

 For example, in BibleWorks:
 - click on Tools: Options: Fonts and select "Export Fonts" 
 -  for Greek & Hebrew tick "Unicode" a choose a Unicode font such as Cardo

 

 

Right-to-left does not work in Windows XP:

Open the Control Panel for "Regional and Language Options"

(click on "Start", "Control Panels")

Click on tab "Languages"

- if there is no tick on "Install files for... right to left languages", tick it and restart the computer (you may be asked for your Windows installation discs).

 

 

 

Hebrew accents are not working correctly.

  • Perhaps you have not turned on the Cardo font?

Cardo contains positioning data which is not available in Times New Roman and most other Unicode fonts containing Hebrew. Other good academic fonts include SIL Hebrew, SBL Hebrew, Code 2000 and TITUS.

  • Perhaps you are trying to write Hebrew in Word on a Mac?

Unfortunately Word on the Mac is years behind the PC for Unicode.

Fortunately NeoOffice is as just as good (if not better), and is fairly good at Hebrew, and it is free!  For flawless Hebrew use Melel.

  • Perhaps you are using a non-standard keyboard (Croatian or whatever)?

Keys such as single quote may not be indicated the same - try the key at the bottom left of the Enter key.

Other keys may also need to be found by hunting round!  

 

How do I write macros in Word to change fonts?

In Word 2003 (other versions are similar):

First make a copy of your "normal.dot" file which contains all the Word settings (just in case).

It is usually at C:\Documents and Settings\YOUR ID\Application Data\Microsoft\Templates\
Then:

- click on menu "Tools", "Macro", "Record New Macro..."
- name the macro "TypeHebrew" and click on "Keyboard"
- press a shortcut keystroke, eg Alt+H and click on "Assign" then "Close"
- change the font in Word to "Cardo"
- change the keyboard by changing "EN" to "HE" (in the bottom-right language bar)
- click on menu "Tools", "Macro", "Stop recording"

 

Make a similar macro for Greek (Alt+G - select "EL" and Cardo)
and for Normal (ie English)  (Alt+N - select "EN" and Times New Roman, or whatever you use).

 

Now, when you are in Word and press Arl+H you should be writing Hebrew from Right to Left,
and when you press Alt+N you go back to English. 

The macros should look something like this:
Sub TypeHebrew()
    Application.Keyboard (1037)
    Selection.Font.Name = "Cardo"
End Sub
Sub TypeGreek()
    Application.Keyboard (1032)
    Selection.Font.Name = "Cardo"
End Sub
Sub TypeEnglish()
    Application.Keyboard (2057)
    Selection.Font.Name = "Times New Roman"
End Sub

How do I insert the rare accents missing from the keyboard?

The Hebrew keyboard can’t contain all the Masoretic punctuation,

though the common punctuation is available on the top number line

when you turn on Caps Lock – use Shift to put the mark above a letter.

Punctuation which isn’t there has to be inserted manually,

- ie click on menu “Insert”, then “Symbol”, find the character and click “Insert”.

For example, the Hebrew Accent Zarqa' or ‘sinnor’ is code 05AE.

 

How do I move a furtive patach and other accents left or right?

The furtive patach and a few other accents should not be central, eg:

This is a little fiddly to do. First, highlight just the accent (ie the left half of the character),

then press Ctrl-D (to edit the font), click on “Character Spacing”, and set Scale at 130%.

The only font that does this automatically is SBL Hebrew.

 

 

Hebrew and Greek on my Mac insists on being Times New Roman or a Logos font!

I don't know why this happens, but if you reinstall Cardo it seems to cure it.

 

How do I write a diaresis?

To get a simple diaresis, type shift-hyphen before the letter.

To type a diaresis combined with an accent, type the same as you would for the accent by itself, plus shift

eg type shift with forward slash then u to get a lightly quizzical smiley.

 

How do I stop sigma changing to final sigma before an accent?

If you try to type type ησὴ you can get ηςὴ. This is due to an auto-correct in Word. 

In Options, untick “Ordinals (1st) with superscript”

  

How do I stop line spacing from growing when I write Hebrew?

Set the Line Spacing to an "Exact" (ie a fixed) amount.
You can do this for individual paragraphs or styles, but if you set the "Normal" style, this should mean that everything else inherits it,
though you may wish to set footnotes to a smaller Line Spacing. 
To set fixed line spacing for "Normal": 

 - Click on menu "Format", "Styles",
- right-click on "Normal", "Modify", 
- click on "Format", "Paragraph", and set "Line spacing" to "Exactly"
- 12pt or 14pt should look good - try it and see

This setting will also fix a common problem with footnotes which sometimes don't appear on the same page as the footnote marker without setting "Exact" line spacing. I don't know why this should fix it, but it does. 
 

 

How to turn Cardo into other fonts? 

Cardo is free for non commercial use, but your publisher needs a licence.

If they already have a licence for other academic Greek & Hebrew, they may force you to change it.

The following macro will turn your Cardo into SIL fonts and Times New Roman.

To use this Macro,
- open Word, click on "Tools" (or "Developer"), "Macro", "Macros",
- in "Macro Name" type: Cardo2SIL
- paste the macro above "End Sub"
- in Word, open your document, click on "Tools" (or "Developer"), "Macro", "Macros",
- double-click on "Cardo2SIL"

'==================
' Sub Cardo2SIL()
    Selection.HomeKey Unit:=wdStory
    Selection.Find.ClearFormatting
    Selection.Find.Replacement.ClearFormatting
    Selection.Find.Replacement.Font.Name = "Times New Roman"
    Selection.Find.Replacement.Font.ColorIndex = wdGreen
    Selection.Find.Font.Name = "Cardo"
    With Selection.Find
       .Text = ""
       .Replacement.Text = ""
       .MatchWildcards = True
    End With
    Selection.Find.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
    Selection.Find.ClearFormatting
    Selection.Find.Replacement.ClearFormatting
    Selection.Find.Replacement.Font.Name = "Galatia SIL"
    Selection.Find.Replacement.Font.ColorIndex = wdRed
    With Selection.Find
        .Text = "[" & ChrW(885) & "-" & ChrW(8190) & "]"
        .Replacement.Text = ""
        .Forward = True
        .MatchWildcards = True
    End With
    Selection.Find.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
    Selection.Find.ClearFormatting
    Selection.Find.Replacement.ClearFormatting
    Selection.Find.Replacement.Font.Name = "Ezra SIL"
    Selection.Find.Replacement.Font.ColorIndex = wdBlue
    With Selection.Find
        .Text = "[" & ChrW(1157) & "-" & ChrW(1632) & "]"
        .Replacement.Text = ""
        .Forward = True
        .MatchWildcards = True
    End With
    Selection.Find.Execute Replace:=wdReplaceAll
'End Sub

 

How do I type common transliteration characters like e or (

A transliteration keyboard is included:  turn on Greek and click on Caps Lock

(see the details above)

 

However, this doesn’t include simple things like superscript "e" and "(".

Partly I didn't include these because I don't use transliteration much, and partly because you already have them.

 

First, a rant about why I don't like transliteration:

Real Hebrew is written in Hebrew, or in simple transliteration such as or 'ayin (sing. 'eye') or 'eimim (dual 'eye')

- ie no superscripts or accents or curly breathings to indicate which sound you are not pronouncing.

The purpose of transliteration used to be to represent the Hebrew letters when we didn't have a Hebrew font,

or to help those who don't know how to pronounce the Hebrew,

or to quickly write some Hebrew without bothering to change font.

The first reason is no longer needed, and the other two are best done without accents and curlies.

 

But if you do need transliteration, (ie if your old-fashioned publisher insists),

the Transliteration font in the Tyndale Unicode kit does most things, and here is how to do other simpler things:

 

To write a superscript "(" without leaving the keyboard:

- press Ctrl+Shift+"="

- press "("

- press Ctrl+Shift+"="   again

 

If this becomes tedious, or if you want something a little more nuanced, create an auto-correct, eg:

(the following assumes you have a menu bar, which was standard upto Word 2003 and an optional extra there-after)

- make a superscript "("  as above, then highlight it and:

- click on "Format" > "Font" > "Character Spacing" tab

- change the "Scale" to "80%" (to make the curlie smaller)

- increase the "Spacing" to "1 pt" (to increase the gap before the next character)

- and increase the "Position" to "1 pt" (to increase the vertical position)

- click OK and see it if is as you want it. If it isn't, adjust some more.

- highlight your perfect curlie and click on Tools > Auto-correct options

- in "Replace" type ".("

- select "Formatted text" instead of "Plain text" and click OK

 

From now on, whenever you type ".(" it turns into your perfect curlie.

 

You can do this for a whole bunch of different characters.

 

I can’t see the Language Bar (the EL or EN etc) in Win.XP 

This happens sometimes, the the following may fix it.

Go to Control panel>Regional and Language Options>Languages>Details

- you should see that the EL and HE fonts are installed. If they aren’t, re-run the installation.

In the Details tab, click on "Language Bar" - make sure "Show the Language bar..." is ticked.

Now untick it.

Now click on "Langauge Bar" again" and tick "Show the Language bar..." AND tick "Show text labels on the Language bar"

If you still can't see it, right-click near the Task Manager (on the bottom-right of the screen by default)

   till you get the option for "Toolbar", and tick "Language bar"

 

 

Nomina Sacra in Unicode:

 

Use Unicode char   0305 (recommended by SBL)

- this is typed after a letter, but in some fonts it looks better if you also add a preceding char

 

̅θ̅ς̅   = θεος

̅ι̅η̅λ̅  = ισραηλ

̅υ̅ς̅   = υιος

̅χ̅ς̅   = χριστος

 

 θ̅ς̅ = Cardo

 θ̅ς̅ = Times New Roman

 θ̅ς̅ = Arial

 θ̅ς̅ = Tahoma

 θ̅ς̅  = SBL Greek

 

To type it, change to TH Greek keyboard, and

1) type the letter (eg "a" for α)

2) press Alt-Gr  (to the right of the space bar) with "-"  (the hyphen key)

3) press any other key – ie the next letter or space

 

Special Text Cricial Symbols:

There are a few symbols which are available in the latest copy of Cardo from

www.fontsquirrel.com/fonts/Cardo

If you already have the font you should be able to see an ornate P here: 𝔓

 

You may not see them in the Symbol Insert tool in Word because their number is

higher than Hex FFFF, so enter them manually, ie:

 

eg to insert the Majority Text symbol:

hold down Alt and type “120080″ (all on the number pad) then let go of Alt

(remember to use the + on the number pad)

Papyrus symbol = 120083

Septuagint, Greek Old Testament = 120086

Lectionary symbol = 119897

 

Some symbols for textual criticism aren’t available on any free Unicode font I know of.

(Even the SIL Apparatus font doesn’t have the Gothic M etc for OT TC)

The best commercial fonts are probably those from Linguist Software.

The only free alternative I know of is the non-Unicode font Garys.ttf from CSNTM

but even that isn’t perfect. I think it is time for OT TC to move on and use MT, LXX, and SP.

 

Why do I get a curly circumflex instead of a rounded one?

Originally the Greek circumflex was a combined acute + grave, ie

               nóòs      nóùs     noûs     or  noũs

The two forms of the accent ( ^  or  ~  ) are a matter of style or taste.

Cardo (which is installed with the Tyndale Unicode keyboard) has the style ~

like most Greek fonts. Galaxie Unicode Greek has a rounded ^

So, if you like that style, you could use that font instead of Cardo.

 

 

 are a few symbols which are available in the latest copy of Cardo from

 

How can I make nice dots under Greek to indicate uncertain characters?

The dot-under character is on the top left of most keyboards. Try this:

Change to the Tyndale Keyboard, then type "a" and Shift+"¬"

  (ie press Shift + the key to the left of "1" in the top row)

You should get α̣

This works fine for characters that don't have a descender but not with eg γ̣

To make it look better, try using New Athena font (from http://www.fontsquirrel.com/fonts/New-Athena-Unicode)

This makes all the characters look good on printout, (though on the screen it still doesn't look perfect).